On 20 August 2013, Huelin-Renouf, which had operated a "lift-on lift-off" container service for 80 years between the Port of Southampton and the Port of Jersey, ceased trading. [17][18] Sir Edmund Andros of Guernsey was an early colonial governor in North America, and head of the short-lived Dominion of New England.[19]. They are considered the remnants of the Duchy of Normandy and, although they are not part of the United Kingdom, the UK is responsible f… Guernsey is the setting of Hugo's later novel Les Travailleurs de la Mer (Toilers of the Sea). Services are held in a number of languages. Wealthy French émigrés fleeing the Revolution sought residency in the islands. Otherwise, entities proclaiming membership of both Guernsey and Jersey might in fact be from one bailiwick only, for instance the Channel Islands Securities Exchange is in Saint Peter Port (and therefore Guernsey). Guernsey is not part of the European Union. Both bailiwicks are members of the British–Irish Council, and Jèrriais and Guernésiais are recognised regional languages of the islands. While they are popular with visitors from France, Channel Islanders rarely visit them as there are no direct transport links from the other islands. The Bailiwick of Guernsey is divided into three jurisdictions – Guernsey, Alderney and Sark – each with its own legislature. This has been ascribed to a range of factors including the physical separation of the Islands, the density of troops (up to one German for every two Islanders), the small size of the Islands precluding any hiding places for resistance groups, and the absence of the Gestapo from the occupying forces. The European Economic Area (the EEA) includes all EU countries and also Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway. Many young men had already left to join the Allied armed forces, as volunteers. The Channel Islands are not represented in the UK Parliament. For the purposes of the British Nationality Act 1981, the "British Islands" include the United Kingdom (Great Britain and Northern Ireland), the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man, taken together, unless the context otherwise requires. The British Government demilitarised the islands in June 1940, and the lieutenant-governors were withdrawn on 21 June, leaving the insular administrations to continue government as best they could under impending military occupation.[20]. [40], Jersey is heavily reliant on financial services, with 39.2% of Gross Value Added (GVA) in 2018 contributed by the sector. The basis of the legal systems of both Bailiwicks is Norman customary law (Coutume) rather than the English Common Law, although elements of the latter have become established over time. [50], Victor Hugo spent many years in exile, first in Jersey and then in Guernsey, where he finished Les Misérables. [47] The new operator was to be funded by Rockayne Limited, a closely held association of Jersey businesspeople.[47]. The formal relationship between the Channel Islands and the EU is enshrined in Protocol 3 of the UK’s 1972 Accession Treaty, and confirmed in what is now Article 355 (5) (c) of the EU Treaties. The European Economic Area (EEA) Agreement and the European Union (EU) are not the same thing. It used to include Switzerland and the visa regimes of most countries throughout the world still treat Swiss passport holders as if Switzerland was still an EEA member. That case, following final judgement at the European Court of Human Rights, became part of the impetus for much recent constitutional change, particularly the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 (2005 c.4) in the UK, including the separation of the roles of the Lord Chancellor, the abolition of the House of Lords' judicial role, and its replacement by the UK Supreme Court. They have been parts of the Duchy of Normandy since the tenth century, and Queen Elizabeth II is often referred to by her traditional and conventional title of Duke of Normandy. A bailiwick is a territory administered by a bailiff. 1) Products that fall within the scope of a directive must comply when first put on the market or put into service in any of the following areas. Guernsey neither contributes to, nor directly receives anything from, the funds of the European Union. Islanders are full British citizens, but were not classed as European citizens unless by descent from a UK national. The Agreement on the EEA entered into force on 1 January 1994. It was retaken by the Yorkists in 1468. The Royal Navy blockaded the islands from time to time, particularly following the Invasion of Normandy in June 1944. Hoards of Armorican coins have been excavated, providing evidence of trade and contact in the Iron Age period. The two Bailiwicks each have their own internet domain, .GG (Guernsey, Alderney, Sark) and .JE (Jersey), which are managed by channelisles.net. Common Agriculture and Fisheries Policies (although the Agreement contains provisions on various aspects of trade [27] The first evacuees returned on the first sailing from Great Britain on 23 June,[20] but the people of Alderney were unable to start returning until December 1945. Intense negotiations resulted in some humanitarian aid being sent via the Red Cross, leading to the arrival of Red Cross parcels in the supply ship SS Vega in December 1944. The Channel Islands were a part of the Duchy of Normandy and among the possessions William the Conqueror brought with him when he became King of England in 1066. They are considered the remnants of the Duchy of Normandy and, although they are not part of the United Kingdom,[3] the UK is responsible for the defence and international relations of the islands. The Isle of Sark Shipping Company operates small ferries to Sark. … The European Economic Area, abbreviated as EEA, consists of the Member States of the European Union (EU) and three countries of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) (Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway; excluding Switzerland).. The Channel Islands (“the Islands”) consist of the Bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey. Sark in the 16th century was uninhabited until colonised from Jersey in the 1560s. European Economic Area EEA - Information about EEA Countries The European Economic Area (EEA) comprises the countries of the European Union (EU), plus Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway and was established on 1 January 1994.. Therefore EEA contains same countries as SEPA with the … The above statement implies that products that have been on the market or in service in any of the following areas, before the implementation of a directive, are excluded from [30], The Channel Islands fall into two separate self-governing bailiwicks, the Bailiwick of Guernsey and the Bailiwick of Jersey. [41] Guernsey had a GDP of £3.2 billion in 2018[42][43] and with a stable population of around 66,000 has had a steadily rising GDP which in 2018 passed £52,000. Rental income comes second at 15.1% with other business activities at 11.2%. Under the UK Interpretation Act 1978, the Channel Islands are deemed to be part of the British Islands,[37] not to be confused with the British Isles. 6,600 out of 50,000 left Jersey while 17,000 out of 42,000 left Guernsey. In the sixth century, Christian missionaries visited the islands. Under the provisions of Protocol Three, Channel Islanders who do not have a close connection with the UK (no parent or grandparent from the UK, and have never been resident in the UK for a five-year period) did not automatically benefit from the EU provisions on free movement within the EU, and their passports received an endorsement to that effect. However, Switzerland no longer participates in the European Economic Area. The legal courts are separate; separate courts of appeal have been in place since 1961. Creative commons license. Software version: EEA Plone KGS 20.11.21. The end of the occupation came after VE-Day on 8 May 1945, Jersey and Guernsey being liberated on 9 May. [55], Guernsey's traditional colour for sporting and other purposes is green and Jersey's is red. Norway. EEA students can take part in the same UK programs as EU students. Tourism 4.5% with agriculture contributing just 1.2% and manufacturing even lower at 1.1%. In Jersey, potatoes are an important export crop, shipped mostly to the UK. The islands were invaded by the French in 1338, who held some territory until 1345. Evidence for Roman settlement is sparse, although evidently the islands were visited by Roman officials and traders. Gallo-Roman culture was adopted to an unknown extent in the islands.[10]. During the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, Jersey held out strongly for the Royalist cause, providing refuge for Charles, Prince of Wales in 1646 and 1649–1650, while the more strongly Presbyterian Guernsey more generally favoured the parliamentary cause (although Castle Cornet was held by Royalists and did not surrender until October 1651). There were probably some Celtic Britons who settled on the Islands in the 5th and 6th centuries AD (the indigenous Celts of Great Britain, and the ancestors of the modern Welsh, Cornish, and Bretons) who had emigrated from Great Britain in the face of invading Anglo-Saxons. The islands' bailiffs, however, still retain their historic roles. Among the legal heritage from Norman law is the Clameur de haro. According to 2015 statistics, 39% of the population was non-religious.[59][60]. The lowest point is the English Channel (sea level). The Channel Islands, Isle of Man and Gibraltar are not within the EEA. continued the work. The two bailiwicks have been administered separately since the late 13th century. [46] On 20 September, it was announced that Channel Island Lines would continue this service, and would purchase the MV Huelin Dispatch from Associated British Ports who in turn had purchased them from the receiver in the bankruptcy. See EEA disambiguation page for other meanings of EEA.. They make up 99% of the population and 92% of the area. The population of Sark largely remained where they were;[20] but in Alderney, all but six people left. The islands were the only part of the British Isles to be occupied by the German Army during World War II. [7] The islands became detached by rising sea levels in the Neolithic period. [51] A "Guernsey-man" also makes an appearance in chapter 91 of Herman Melville's Moby-Dick. [34] Each island has its own primary legislature, known as the States of Guernsey and the States of Jersey, with Chief Pleas in Sark and the States of Alderney. Both are British Crown dependencies, and neither is a part of the United Kingdom. The Channel Islands (Norman: Îles d'la Manche; French: Îles Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la Manche)[note 1] are an archipelago in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy. The very large tidal variation provides an environmentally rich inter-tidal zone around the islands, and some islands such as Burhou, the Écréhous, and the Minquiers have been designated Ramsar sites. Although the words derive from a common root ('bail' = 'to give charge of') there is a vast difference between the meanings of the word 'bailiff' in Great Britain and in the Channel Islands; a bailiff in Britain is a court-appointed private debt-collector authorised to collect judgment debts, in the Channel Islands, the Bailiff in each bailiwick is the civil head, presiding officer of the States, and also head of the judiciary, and thus the most important citizen in the bailiwick. In 2001 and 2002, the Channel Islands entered a team into the MCCA Knockout Trophy, the one-day tournament of the minor counties of English and Welsh cricket. A regular passenger ferry service on the Commodore Clipper goes from both Channel Island ports to Portsmouth daily, and carries both passengers and freight. Bicycles display tax discs. Hinweis: Each has its own independent laws, elections, and representative bodies (although in modern times, politicians from the islands' legislatures are in regular contact). [25] Many land mines were laid, with 65,718 land mines laid in Jersey alone.[26]. The following states are EU applicants and may become EU members in the future: Switzerland is a member of EFTA but is not a member of the EEA. Legal notice. The Jersey cricket team and the Guernsey cricket team are both associate members of the International Cricket Council. The Channel Islands (Norman: Îles d'la Manche; French: Îles Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la Manche) are an archipelago in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy. Their numbers have been reinforced by recent migrants from Poland and elsewhere in Eastern Europe. [35], The islands have never been part of the European Union, and thus were not a party to the 2016 referendum on the EU membership, but were part of the Customs Territory of the European Community by virtue of Protocol Three to the Treaty on European Union. … Bitte die mit * gekennzeichneten Felder ausfüllen. The Agreement creating the European Economic Area (EEA) entered into force on 1 January 1994. The EEA is an agency of the European Union. Since then, the Channel Islands have been governed as possessions of the Crown and were never absorbed into the Kingdom of England and its successor kingdoms of Great Britain and the United Kingdom. [citation needed], Various attempts to transfer the islands from the diocese of Coutances (to Nantes (1400), Salisbury (1496), and Winchester (1499)) had little effect until an Order in Council of 1569 brought the islands formally into the diocese of Winchester. It was not until the early 1990s that the islands joined the UK's postcode system, Jersey postcodes using the initials JE and Guernsey GY. In the late eighteenth century, the Islands were dubbed "the French Isles". This update can change over time so it is important to understand if any EEA country changes affect your immigration status or change how you would normally qualify to work under EEA country rules for you and especially your non-EEA family members. It allows the EEA EFTA States (Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein) to participate in the Internal Market on the basis of their application of Internal Market relevant acquis. Christianity was brought to the islands around the sixth century; according to tradition, Jersey was evangelised by St Helier, Guernsey by St Samson of Dol, and the smaller islands were occupied at various times by monastic communities representing strands of Celtic Christianity. Submarine cables connect the various islands and provide connectivity with England and France. They include two Crown dependencies: the Bailiwick of Jersey, which is the largest of the islands; and the Bailiwick of Guernsey, consisting of Guernsey, Alderney, Sark, Herm and some smaller islands. It allows them to be part of the EU’s single market. Introduction. Many Spaniards, initially refugees from the Spanish Civil War, were brought to the islands to build fortifications. A local television service was called Channel Islands Live started transmitting in early 2016, from the studios at Dorset Street, St. Helier, Jersey, Channel Islands. The Channel Islands, Isle of Man and Gibraltar are not within the EEA. In the late twentieth century, a strong Roman Catholic presence re-emerged with the arrival of numerous Portuguese workers (both from mainland Portugal and the island of Madeira). In the period 1204–1214, King John lost the Angevin lands in northern France, including mainland Normandy, to King Philip II of France, but managed to retain control of the Channel Islands. In 1483 a Papal bull decreed that the islands would be neutral during time of war. The systems of government in the islands date from Norman times, which accounts for the names of the legislatures, the States, derived from the Norman 'États' or 'estates' (i.e. Ferry services to Normandy are operated by Manche Îles Express, and services between Jersey and Saint-Malo are operated by Compagnie Corsaire and Condor Ferries. In Saint Peter Port, a large part of the harbour had been built by 1865. [12]:2–4 Owain Lawgoch, a mercenary leader of a Free Company in the service of the French Crown, attacked Jersey and Guernsey in 1372, and in 1373 Bertrand du Guesclin besieged Mont Orgueil. In Alderney, the occupying Germans built four camps in which over 700 people out of a total worker population of about 6,000 died. EEA is short for European Economic Area. You will also find other legal documents, such as all adopted Joint Committee Decisions and the EEA status of EU legal acts. In September 2010, a Channel Islands Brussels Office was set up jointly by the two Bailiwicks to develop the Channel Islands' influence with the EU, to advise the Channel Islands' governments on European matters, and to promote economic links with the EU.[36]. In 933, the islands were granted to William I Longsword by Raoul King of Western Francia[11] and annexed to the Duchy of Normandy. There was no resistance movement in the Channel Islands on the scale of that in mainland France. Software updated on 23 November 2020 18:51 from version 20.10.13. Any British citizen who applies for a passport in Jersey or Guernsey receives a passport bearing the words "British Islands, Bailiwick of Jersey" or "British Islands, Bailiwick of Guernsey". These are believed to be from the Old Norse ey (island) and holmr (islet). Since 1969, Jersey and Guernsey have operated postal administrations independently of the UK's Royal Mail, with their own postage stamps, which can be used for postage only in their respective Bailiwicks. In 1066, William II of Normandy invaded and conquered England, becoming William I of England, also known as William the Conqueror. The Channel Islands and the Isle of Man have Associate Member status. [21], Following the liberation of 1945, reconstruction led to a transformation of the economies of the islands, attracting immigration and developing tourism. The dependencies of other member states presumably have similar arrangements. They are located just off the coast of France, in the English Channel. Television programmes are broadcast from the Frémont Point transmitting station. The Eionet core data flows page provides an overview of these data flows, which are a subset of the key data reported by EEA member and cooperating countries using the Reportnet tools. The Channel Islands and the European Union. In recognition for all the help given to him during his exile in Jersey in the 1640s, Charles II gave George Carteret, Bailiff and governor, a large grant of land in the American colonies, which he promptly named New Jersey, now part of the United States of America. Switzerland is neither an EU nor EEA member but is part of the single market – this means Swiss nationals have the same rights to live and work in the UK as other EEA nationals. The Channel Islands, Isle of Man and Gibraltar are not within the EEA. Switzerland is not part of the EEA, but has an agreement that extends the single market to include it. Link to EU Commission's website on membership status, Next Section: Import of American Sport Boats - Requirements on Exhaust Emissions. Edward III of England granted a Charter in July 1341 to Jersey, Guernsey, Sark and Alderney, confirming their customs and laws to secure allegiance to the English Crown. For about two hundred years, the islands, along with Normandy and England, were united but the islands were administered from Normandy. In simple terms, the Island is treated as part of the European Community or EU market for the purposes of free trade in goods, but otherwise is not a part of the EU. The Isle of Wight, which is part of England, lies just off the coast of Great Britain, between the Channel and the Solent. Occupational exposure limit (OEL) values are derived within two legal frameworks that form an integral part of the EU’s mechanism for protecting the health of … The Roman name for the Channel Islands was I. Lenuri (Lenur Islands) and is included in the Peutinger Table[9]:4 The traditional Latin names used for the islands (Caesarea for Jersey, Sarnia for Guernsey, Riduna for Alderney) derive (possibly mistakenly) from the Antonine Itinerary. [41], Jersey has had a steadily rising population, increasing from below 90,000 in 2000 to over 105,000 in 2018 which combined with a flat GVA has resulted in GVA per head of population falling from £57,000 to £44,000 per person. The earliest evidence of human occupation of the Channel Islands has been dated to 250,000 years ago when they were attached to the landmass of continental Europe. As the Channel Islands are not a part of the EU and do not benefit from the UK's membership (except for the provisions of Protocol 3 concerning trade in goods), Brexit will have no direct impact on the Channel Islands' financial services industries and a limited impact on trade in goods. There was considerable hunger and privation during the five years of German occupation, particularly in the final months when the population was close to starvation. Even though Switzerland is not an EEA member, its citizens enjoy similar benefits in the UK. The following states are "EU applicants" and may become EU members in … The EEA is composed of all EU members states as well as the following: Iceland. Under Protocol 3, the Islands are part of the Customs Union and can trade in goods and agricultural products as if … The following countries are part of the European Economic Area (EEA): - The Netherlands - Bulgaria - Romania - Belgium - Luxembourg - France - Germany - Italy - Ireland - Denmark - Greece - Spain - Portugal - Austria - Finland - Sweden - Cyprus - Estonia - Hungary - Latvia - Lithuania - Malta - Poland - Slovenia - Slovakia - Czech Republic Modern broadband speeds are available in all the islands, including VDSL for home and business. They have a combined population of approximately 165,000, and a combined GDP of approximately £6.2billion. However, during the transition period EU law continues to apply. Control by the bishop of Winchester was ineffectual as the islands had turned overwhelmingly Calvinist and the episcopacy was not restored until 1620 in Jersey and 1663 in Guernsey. Anglicanism was imposed in the seventeenth century, but the Non-Conformist local tendency returned with a strong adoption of Methodism. The UK Parliament has power to legislate for the islands, but Acts of Parliament do not extend to the Islands automatically. However, pursuant to the Treaty of Paris (1259), she governs in her right as The Queen (the "Crown in right of Jersey",[31] and the "Crown in right of the république of the Bailiwick of Guernsey"),[32] and not as the Duke. [20] Alderney had the only Nazi concentration camps on British soil.[22][23]. Regional television and radio broadcasts are available in the islands. scope. Both islands still form part of the British telephone numbering plan, but Ofcom on the mainlines does not have responsibility for telecommunications regulatory and licensing issues on the islands. [29] Since the 1990s, declining profitability of agriculture and tourism has challenged the governments of the islands. Here you can find the main text of the Agreement on the European Economic Area (EEA), as well as updated versions of all Annexes and Protocols. [52], The annual "Muratti", the inter-island football match, is considered the sporting event of the year, although, due to broadcast coverage, it no longer attracts the crowds of spectators, travelling between the islands, that it did during the twentieth century. [41], Both bailiwicks issue their own banknotes and coins, which circulate freely in all the islands alongside UK coinage and Bank of England and Scottish banknotes.[44]. United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (including Gibraltar, excluding the Channel Islands, BNO passport holders and Isle of Man) From 31 January 2020 the UK is no longer an EU/EEA member state. Engineered by: EEA Web Team. The Chausey Islands south of Jersey are not generally included in the geographical definition of the Channel Islands but are occasionally described in English as 'French Channel Islands' in view of their French jurisdiction. The German garrison in Alderney was left until 16 May, and it was one of the last of the Nazi German remnants to surrender. At the Reformation, the previously Roman Catholic islands converted to Calvinism under the influence of an influx of French-language pamphlets published in Geneva. Many of the evacuees who returned home had difficulty reconnecting with their families after five years of separation. The Isle of Wight, for example, is not a "Channel Island", despite being located in the Channel. This notwithstanding, it is a matter of local pride for monarchists to treat the situation otherwise: the Loyal toast at formal dinners is to 'The Queen, our Duke', rather than to 'Her Majesty, The Queen' as in the UK.[33]. Samson of Dol, Helier, Marculf and Magloire are among saints associated with the islands. They have a total population of about 170,499, and the bailiwicks' capitals, Saint Helier and Saint Peter Port, have populations of 33,500 and 18,207, respectively. It includes the Azores, Madeira ( Portugal ), the Ǻland islands ( Finland ), the Canary Islands, Ceuta and Melilla ( Spain ) and the French overseas departments. There are several local newspapers including the Guernsey Press and the Jersey Evening Post and magazines. The Channel islands, Isle of Man, Gibraltar and numerous other places are British crown dependendancies and therefore not part of the UK. 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