soil - (i) The unconsolidated mineral or organic material on the immediate surface of the Earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants. In many areas of the world soil is formed in place and derived directly from the weathering and degradation of rocks. Physical & Chemical Factors that Control Biological Activity in the Soil Texture. These factors reduce the yield. Both mechanical and chemical weathering play an important role in soil formation. In the broadest sense, it comprises alterations in the soil’s chemical property that find out nutrient availability. In the first category are biotic factors—all the living and once-living things in soil, such as plants and insects. Modi ed soil erodibility factor, K, for Peninsular . Chemical factors e.g. These processes will transform that boulder into particles of sands, silt and clays. depletion of nutrients or the toxicity due to acidity or alkalinity (salinization) or water logging. Biological factors which affect the micro-flora and reduce the microbial activity of the soil. Soil texture indirectly influences properties such as: water holding capacity, porosity, aeration and nutrient availability. Soil contains air, water, and minerals as well as plant and animal matter, both living and dead. Justus Von Liebig’s Law of the Minimum: A plant’s yield is limited by the most limited nutrient. Soil formation is due to the percolation of water and weathering. Parent material: It refers to the mineral material or organic material from which the soil is formed. Soil Biology Organic matter Carbon Density weight / volume pore space Chemical Properties of Soil e. Chemical Properties of Soil - endless cycles Sulfur cycle Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle. Change in phase (mineral type) and composition are due to the action of chemical agents. Soil Chemical Properties a. Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) ... Factors that affect soil pH include parent material, vegetation, and climate. ADVERTISEMENTS: 3. Soils form from the interplay of five main factors namely Parent Material, Time, Climate, Relief, and Organisms. The soil degradation causes of natural as well as human being, but human being causes are more effective on soil degradation. Soil texture is defined as the distribution of sand (0.05-2.0 mm), silt (0.002-0.05mm), and clay ( < 0.002mm) in soil. Chemical weathering - process by which the internal structure of a mineral is altered by the addition or removal of elements. Some rocks and sediments produce soils that are more acidic than others: quartz-rich sandstone is acidic; limestone is alkaline. As water seeps downwards, it breaks down material. The soils will carry the characteristics of its parent material such as color, texture, structure, mineral composition, and so on. Chemical factors. and developmen t (Lee et al., 20 08). This natural chemical composition of a soil is a function of that soil’s parent material. ... the physical and chemical soil properties, hence contr ibuting healthier plant growth . ... Factors in Soil Formation. The type of rock the soil originated from, topographic features of an area, climate, time and human activity are the five major factors that affect soil composition. Soil composition, or the amount and types of minerals in any soil, is determined by multiple factors. Soil chemistry can be considered as the natural chemical composition of a given soil. This water seepage is what dissolves rocks into soil. These soil components fall into two categories. The reduction of soil nutrients because of alkalinity or acidity of waterlogging are all grouped under the chemical components of soil degradation. The second category consists of abiotic factors, which include all nonliving things—for example, minerals, water, and air. 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